Four Phases of Crisis Management

The results of extensive interviews and a review of the crisis literature reveal that experts employ four phases of crisis management:

  • Mitigation/Prevention addresses what 1-7 schools and districts can do to reduce or eliminate risk to life and property.
  • Preparedness focuses on the process of planning for the worst-case scenario.
  • Response is devoted to the steps to take during a crisis.
  • Recovery deals with how to restore the learning and teaching environment after a crisis.

Crisis management is a continuous process in which all phases of the plan are being reviewed and revised (see Exhibit 1.1). Good plans are never finished. They can always be updated based on experience, research, and
changing vulnerabilities. Districts and schools may be in various stages of planning.

Four Phases of Crisis Management Pie Chart